An inflammatory response may be the result of infection, massive cell death or a combination of both.  In addition, inflammation may lead to extra tissue damage and cell death, thereby perpetuating the inflammatory repsonse. Several inflammatory markers can be detected as measure for inflammation or cell death, such as cell free DNA (in the form of nucleosomes) which is released upon cell death. Neutrophils are the main innate immue cells that are attracted to infamed tissue. Elastase is excreted upon stimulation of neutrophils and can be used as a marker for in vivo neutrophil activation. In human plasma elastase is directly complexed with its inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin ( a1-AT), so in plasma samples elastase- a1-AT complexes should be measured. 

Assays inflammatory markers Context
CRP Acute phase protein, general inflammation marker
Elastase-a1-AT complexes Neutrophil activation
NETs Neutrophil extracellular traps
Nucleosomes Cell death/tissue damage
Granzyme A Activation NK cells and Cytotoxic T cells
Granzyme B Activation NK cells and Cytotoxic T cells
Monocyte activation test (MAT) Test whether a substance or vaccine elicits pro-inflammatory cytokine response


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Last edited on: 4 November 2015