An inflammatory response may be the result of infection, massive cell death or a combination of both. In addition, inflammation may lead to extra tissue damage and cell death, thereby perpetuating the inflammatory repsonse. Several inflammatory markers can be detected as measure for inflammation or cell death, such as cell free DNA (in the form of nucleosomes) which is released upon cell death. Neutrophils are the main innate immue cells that are attracted to infamed tissue. Elastase is excreted upon stimulation of neutrophils and can be used as a marker for in vivo neutrophil activation. In human plasma elastase is directly complexed with its inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin ( a1-AT), so in plasma samples elastase- a1-AT complexes should be measured.
|Assays inflammatory markers||Context|
|CRP||Acute phase protein, general inflammation marker|
|Elastase-a1-AT complexes||Neutrophil activation|
|NETs||Neutrophil extracellular traps|
|Nucleosomes||Cell death/tissue damage|
|Granzyme A||Activation NK cells and Cytotoxic T cells|
|Granzyme B||Activation NK cells and Cytotoxic T cells|
|Monocyte activation test (MAT)||Test whether a substance or vaccine elicits pro-inflammatory cytokine response|
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