For evaluation of endothelial damage acute vascular injury markers can be used such as von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its propeptide (VWFpp). VWF is a multimeric glycoprotein produced by endothelial cells, mediates adhesion and aggregation of platelets. VWF is released from Weibel-Palade bodies in equimolar concentration with VWFpp. VWFpp is separated from VWF during the maturation process. The half-life of VWFpp is very short in contrast to the half-life of VWF, allowing VWFpp to discriminate between acute and chronic endothelial activation and injury. Persistent elevation of VWFpp would suggest continuous injury. The strong relation between endothelial damage and VWF and VWFpp was demonstrated under various human pathological conditions and in many animal models. Both parameters are measured using validated ELISA techniques.
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